Through one quick and direct measurement, an infrared spectrum provides a global and unique fingerprint of a sample. This sum of information is demonstrated to be very accurate and sensitive to subtle changes, but needs to be interpreted in such a way as to maximize the amount of information that can be retrieved. Recent progress in chemometric methods has expanded the opportunities for calibration and statistical interpretation of the spectra, opening up a whole new range of applications. In particular, our team has developed new analytical methodologies, which are particularly relevant for the biopharmaceutical industry. A few examples are presented here: (i) structural and thermostability analysis of protein adsorbed onto aluminium-containing adjuvant, (ii) batch-to-batch comparison of proteoliposomes, (iii) quantification of glycosylation and (iv) quantification of tween. Monitoring these characteristics still represents a key challenge in developing safe and effective therapeutic products. FTIR spectroscopy could thus help to overcome this challenge.